One aspect of composition that consistently troubles my students (and vexes me) is introducing outside sources in a paper.
For a literary essay, the rules are relatively simple: make sure you include the text title and author somewhere, give us a little plot background so we can understand what’s going on, etc. But for non-fiction analytical writing, the variety of sources available makes identifying proper and adequate context for a quote much more difficult. How exactly should one quote a comment on a YouTube video? Do I need to include the author’s name here? Should this detail be quoted directly or just summarized?
Here are a few common issues I see with my students when they write 2Fer Essays:
- They present human sources (who are not household names) without any context as to why that person is a credible source (“According to Joe Sixpack…”)
- After the first reference, they refer to this person by their first name only.
- On the other extreme, they will over-narrate their own quotation. (“According to an article published in The Examiner Online, it is quoted as saying that…”)
- They include context for the information after it is presented, not before.
At first, it seemed like an advanced algorithm that you learned over time — eventually your intuition would tell you that you needed to write “New York Times Columnist David Brooks” and not just “David.” But “just wait ’til your older” is hardly an instructional method.
The best idea I have right now? A flow chart. Me and a few of my SAT’s are currently hashing out as many iterations of citing sources we can think of, and then we will try to create an easy-to-follow chart as best we can.
Is this going to work? I really don’t know. It could turn out to be an awesome tool, or it could be messy and incomprehensible.
But go ahead and check out our draft so far. Leave comments here if you have any ideas or edits.
(And if there’s something else out there like this, please let me know!)